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The New Tesla Electromagnetics and the Secrets of Free Electrical Energy

by T. E. Bearden

A: Discrepancies in Present EM Theory

There are at least twenty-two major discrepancies presently existing in conventional electromagnetcs theory. This paper presends a summary of those flaws, and is a further commentary on my discussio of scalar longitudinal waves in a previous paper, "S olutions to Tesla's Secrets and the Soviet Tesla Weapons," Tesla Book Company, 1981 and 1982.

I particularly wish to express my deep appreciation to two of my friends and colleagues who at thi time, I believe, wish to remain anonymous. One of the two is an experimental genius who can produc items that do not work by orthodox theory. The secon d is a master of materials science and electromagnetics theory. I thank them both for their exceptioal contributions and stimuli regarding potential shortcoming in present electromagnetics theory, andtheir forbearance with the many discussions we have h eld on this and related subjects.

It goes without saying that any etrors in this paper are strictly my own, and not the fault of eiter of my distinguished colleagues.

(1) In present electromagnetics theory, charge and charged mass are falsely made identical. Actualy, on a charged particle, the "charge" is the flux of virtual particles on the "bare particle" of obervable mass. The charged particle is thus a "system" of true massless charge coupled to a bare chargeless mass. The observable "mass" is static, three-dmensional and totally spatial. "Charge" is dynamic, four-dimensional or more, virtual and spatiotempral. Further, the charge and observable mass can be de-coupled, contrary to present theory. Decoupled charge -- that is, the absence of mass -- is simplywhat we presently refer to as "Vacuum." Vacuum, spacetime, and massless charge are all identical. Riorously, we should utilize any of these three as an "ether," as suggested for vacuum by Einstein himself (see Max Born, Einstiein's Theory of Relativity,Revised Edition, Dover Publications, New York, 1965, p. 224). And all three of them are identically nenergy -- not energy, but more fundamental component s of energy.

(2) Electrostatic potential is regarded as a purely 3-dimensional spatial stress. Instead, it is te intensity of a many-dimensional (at least four-dimensional) virtual flux and a stress on all four imensions of spacetime. This is easily seen, once one recognizes that spacetime is identically masless charged. (It is not "filled" with charge; rather,it is charge!) Just as, in a gas under pressure, the accumulation of additional gas further stressesthe gas, the accumulation of charge (spacetime) stres ses charge (spacetime). Further, if freed from its attachment to mass, charge can flow exclusively i time, exclusively in space, or in any combination of the two. Tesla waves -- which are scalar wavesin pure massless charge flux itself -- thus can exhib it extraordinary characteristics that ordinary vector waves do not possess. And Tesla waves have exta dimensional degrees of freedom in which to move, as compared to vector waves. Indeed, one way to vsualize a tesla scalar wave is to regard it as a pure oscillation of time itself.

(3) Voltage and potential are often confused in the electrostatic case, or at least thought of as composed of the same thing." For that reason, voltage is regarded as "potential drop." This also is ot true. Rigorously, the potential is the intensity of the virtual particle flux at a single point -- whether or not there is any mass at the point -- an both the pressure and the point itself are spatiotemporal (4-dimensional) and not spatial (3-dimensonal) as presently assumed. Voltage represents th e spatial intersection of the difference in potential between two seperated spatial points, ad always implies at least a miniscule flow of mass current (that is what makes it spatial!). "Voltag" is spatial and depends upon the presence of observable mass flow, while scalar electrostatic potential is spatiotemporal and depends upon the absence o observable mass flow. The two are not even of the same dimensionality.

(4) The charge of vacuum spacetime is assumed to be zero, when in fact it is a very high value. Vauum has no mass, but it has great massless charge and virtual particle charge flux. For proof that acharged vacuum is the seat of something in motion, se e G. M. Graham and D. G. Lahoz, "Observation of static electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuo," Nture, Vol. 285, 15 May 1980, pp. 154-155. In fact, vacuum IS charge, identically, and it is also spaetime, and at least four-dimensional.

(5) Contrary to its present usage, zero is dimensional and relative in its context. A three-dimensonal spatial hole, for example, exists in time. If we model time as a dimension, then the spatial hoe has one dimension in 4-space. So a spatial absence is a spatiotemporal presence. In the vacuum 4-space, a spatial nothing is still a something. The "vitual" concept and mathematical concept of a derivative are simply two present ways of unconsciously ddressing this fundamental problem of the dimensional relativity of zero.

(6) The concepts of "space" and "time" imply that spacetime (vacuum) has been seperated into two prts. We can only think of a space as "continuing to exist in time." To separate vacuum spacetime nto two pieces, an operation is continually requir ed. The operator that accomplishes this splitting operation is the photon interaction, the interactin of vector electromagnetic energy or waves with mass. I have already strongly pointed out this effet and presented a "raindrop model" or first-order phy sical change itself in my book, The Excalibur Briefing, Strawberry Hill Press, San Francisco, 1980,pp. 128-130.

(7) "Vector magnetic potential" is assumed to be always an aspect of (and connected to) the magnetc field. In fact it is a separate, fundamental field of nature and it can be entirely disconnected fom the magnetic field. See Richard P. Feynman et al, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., New York, 1964, Vol. II, pp. 15-8 to15-14. Curiously, this fact has been proven for years, yet it has been almost completely ignored in he West. The "(triangle)x" operator, when applied to the A-field, makes B-field. If the (triangle)x operator is not applied, the "freed" A-field possesse much-expanded characteristics from those presently allowed in the "bound" theory. Specifically, it ecomes a scalar or "shadow vector" field; it is not a normal vector field.

(8) The speed of light in vacuum is assumed to be a fundamental constant of nature. Instead it is function of the intensity of the massless charge flux (that is, of the magnitude of the electrostatc potential) of the vacuum in which it moves. (Indeed , since vacuum and masless charge are one and the same, one may say that the speed of light is a funtion of the intensity of the spatiotemporal vacuum!). The higher the flux intensity (charge) of the acuum, the faster the speed of light in it. This is a n observed fact and already shown by hardcore measurements. For example, distinct differences actualy exist in the speed of light in vacuo, when measured on the surface of the earth as compared to mesurements in space away from planetary masses. In a vacuum on the surface of the earth, light moves significantly faster. For a discussion and the statisics, see B. N. Belyaev, "On Random Fluctuations of the Velocity of Light in Vacuum," Soviet Physics ournal, No. 11, Nov. 1980, pp. 37-42 (original in Russian, translation by Plenum Publishing Corporation.) The Russians have used this knowledge for overtwo decades in their strategic psychotronics (energetics) program; yet hardly a single U.S. scientis is aware of the measured variation of c in vacuo. In fact, most Western scientists simply cannot believe it when it is pointed out to them!

(9) Energy is considered fundamental and equivalent to work. In fact, energy arises from vector prcesses, and it can be disassembled into more fundamental (anenergy) scalar components, since the vecors can. These scalar components individually can be moved to a distant location without expending work, since one is not moving force vectors. There thescalar components can be joined and reassembled into vectors to provide "free energy" appearing at adistance, with no loss in between the initial and distant points. For proof that a vector field can be replaced by (and considered to be composed of) twoscalar fields, see E. T. Whittaker, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Volume 1, 1903, . 367. By extension, any vector wave can be replaced by two coupled scalar waves.

(10) The classical Poynting vector predicts no longitudinal wave of energy from a time-varying, elctrically charged source. In fact, an exact solution of the problem does allow this longitudinal wav. See T. D. Keech and J. F. Corum, "A New Derivation for the Field of a Time-Varying Charge in Einsteins Theory," International Journal of Theoretical Phsics, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1981, pp. 63-68 for the proof.

(11) The present concepts of vector and scalar are severely limited, and do not permit the explici consideration of the internal, finer-grained structures of a vector or a scalar. That is, a funamental problem exists with the basic assumptions in the vector mathematics itself. The "space" of a vector field, for example, does not have inter-nesed sublevels (subspaces) containing finer "shadow vectors" or "virtual vectors." Yet particle physic has already discovered that electrical reality is built that way. Thus one should actually use a "hypernumber" theory after the manner of Charles Muses.A scalar is filled with (and composed of) nested levels of other "spaces" containing vectors, where hese sum to "zero" in the ordinary observable frame w ithout an observable vector resultant. In Muses' mathematics, for example, zero has real roots. Realphysical devices can be -- and have been -- constructed in accordance with Muses' theory. For an intoduction to Muses' profound hypernumberss approach, s ee Charles Muses' forward to Jerome Rothstein, Communication, Ogranization and Science, The Falcon'sWing Press, Indian Hills, Colorado, 1958. See also Charles Muses', "Applied Hypernumbers: Computatioal Convepts," Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vo l. 3, 1976. See also Charles Muses' "Hypernumbers II", Aoplied Mathematics and Computation, Janurary 1978.

(12) With the expanded Tesla electromagnetics, a new conservation of energy law is required. Let u recapitulate for a moment. The oldest law called for the conservation of mass. The present law call for the conservation of "mass and energy", but not each separately. If mass is regarded as simply another aspect of energy, then the present law calls fr the conservation of energy. However, this assumes that energy is a basic, fundamental concept. Sine the energy concept is tied to work and the movement of vector forces, it implicitly assumes "vector movement2 to be a "most fundamental" and irreducibl concept. But as we pointed out, Whittaker showed that vectors can always be further broken down int more fundamental coupled scalar components. Further, Tesla discovered that these "coupled components" of "energy" can be individually separated, transmited, processed, rejoined, etc. This directly implies that energy per se need not be conserved. The nw law therefore calls for the conservation of anenerg y, the components of energy. These components may be coupled into energy, and the energy may be furter compacted into mass. It is the sum total of the (anenergy) components -- coupled and uncoupled --that is conserved, not the matter or the energy per s e. Further, this conservation of anenergy is not spatial; rather it is spatiotemporal in a spacetimeof at least four or more dimensions.

(13) Relativity is presently regarded as a theory or statement about fundamental physical reality.In fact, it is only a statement about FIRST ORDER reality -- the reality that emerges from th vector interaction of electromagnetic energy with matter. When we break down the vectors into scalars (shadow vectors or hypervectors), we immediatlyenter a vastly different, far more fundamental reality. In this reality superluminal velocity, multile universes, travel back and forth in time, higher dimensions, variation of all "fundamental constants" of nature, materialization and dematerialization and violation of the "conservation of energy" are all involved. Even our present Aristotlean logic - fitted to the photon interaction by vector light as the fundamental observation mechanism -- is incapable of describing or modeling this more fundamentl reality. Using scalar waves and scalar interactions as much subtler, far less limited observation/etection mechanisms, we must have a new "superrelativ ity" to describe the expanded electromagnetic reality uncovered by Nikola Tesla.

(14) "Charge" is assumed to be quantized, in addition to always occuring with -- and locked to --mass. Indeed, charge is not necessarily quantized, just as it is not necessarily locked to mass. Ehrnhaft discovered and reported fractional charges for years, in the 30's and 40's, and was ignored. See P.A.M. Dirac, "Development of the Physicist's Concption of Nature", Sumposium on the Development of the Physicist's Conception of Nature, ed. Jagdish erha, D. Reidel, Boston, 1973, pp. 12-14 for a presen tation of some of Ehrenhaft's results. Within the last few years Stanford University researchers hav also positively demonstrated the existence of "fractional charge." For a layman's description of thir work, see "A Spector Haunting Physics," Science Ne ws, Vol. 119, January 31, 1981, pp. 68-69. Indeed, Dirac in his referenced article points out that Mllikan himself -- in his original oildrop experiments -- reported one measurement of fractional chare, but discounted it as probably due to error.

(15) Presently, things are always regarded as traveling through normal space. Thus we use or modelonly the most elementary type of motion -- that performed by vector electromagnetic energy. We do no allow for things to "travel inside the vector flow i tself." Yet, actually, there is a second, more subtle flow inside the first, and a third, even more ubtle flow inside the second, and so on. We may operate inside, onto, into, and out of energy itself-- and any anenergy component of energy. There are hy pervectors and hyperscalars unlimited , within the ordinary vectors and scalars we already know. Furher, these "interlan flows" can be engineered and utilized, allowing physical reality itself to be drectly engineered, almost without limits.

(16) We always assume everything exists in time. Actually, nothing presently measured exists in tie, because the physicical detection/measurement process of our present instruments destroys time, riping it off and tossing it away -- and thereby "colla psing the wave function." Present scientific methodology thus is seriously flawed. It does not yieldfundamental (spacetime) truth, but only a partial (spatial) truth. This in turn leads to great scienific oversights. For example. mass does not exist in time, but mass x time (masstime) does. A fundamental constant does not exist in time, but "constant time" does. Energy does not exist in time, but energy x time (action) does. Even space itself does ot exist in time -- spacetime does. We are almost alw ays one dimension short in every observable we model. Yet we persist in thinking spatially, and we hve developed instruments that detect and measure spatially only. Such instruments can never measure nd detect the phenomenology of the nested substrata of time. By using scalar technology, however, less limited instruments can indeed be constructed -- ad they have been. With such new instruments, the phenomenology of the new electromagnetics can be exlored and an engineering technology developed.

(17) We do not recognize the connection between nested levels of virtual state (particle physics) nd orthogonally rotated frames (hyperspaces). Actually, the two are identical, as I showed in the apendix to my book, The Excalibur Briefing, Strawberry Hills Press, San Francisco, 1980, pp. 233-235. A virtual particle in the laborotory frame is an obsevable particle in a hyperspatial frame rotated more than one orthogonal turn away. This of course imlies that the hyperspatial velocity of all virtual particles is greater than the speed of light. The particle physicist is already deeply involved in hyprspaces and hyperspatial charge fluxes without realizing it. In other words , he is using tachyons (articles that move faster than light) without realizi ng it.

(18) Presently quantum mechanics rigorously states that time is not an observable, and therefore i cannot be measured or detected. According to this assumption, one must always infer time from spatil measurements, because all detections and measurements are spatial. With this assumption, our scientists prejudice themselves against looking for finer,subquantal measurement methodologies and instrumentation. Actually this present limitation is the reult of the type of electromagnetics we presently know, where all instruments (the "measurers") have been interacted with by vector electromagnetic energy(light). Every mass that has temperature (and all masses do!) is continually absorbing and emitting hotons, and in the process they are continually conne cting to time and disconnecting from time. If time is continually being carried away from the detectr itself by its emitted photons, then the detector cannot hold and "detect" that which it has just lost. With Tesla electromagnetics, however, the fundamental limitation of our present instru- ments need not apply. With finer instruments, we cn show there are an infinite number of levels to "time", and it is only the "quantum level time" whih is continually being lost by vector light (photon) interaction. By using subquantal scalar waves, instruments can move to deeper levels of time -- in wich case the upper levels of time ARE measureable and detectable, in contradistinction to present asumptions.

(19) In the present physics, time is modeled as, and considered to be, a continuous dimension suchas length. This is only a gross approximation. Indeed , time is not like a continuous "dimension," bt more like a series of "stiches," each of which is individually made and then ripped out before the next stitch appears. "Vector light" photons interactone at a time, and it is this interaction with mass that creates quantum change itself. The absorbtin of a photon -- which is energy x time -- by a spati al mass converts it to masstime: the time was added by the photon. The emission of a photon tears awy the time, leaving behind again a spatial mass. It is not accidental, then, that time flows at the peed of light, for it is light which contains and carries time. It is also not accidental that the photon IS the individual quantum. Since all our instruents presently are continually absorbing and emitting photons, they are all "quantized," and they acordingly "quantize" their detections. This is true be cause all detection is totally internal to the detector, and the instruments only detect only their wn internal changes. Since these detections are on a totally granular quantized background, the detetions themselves are quantized. The Minkowski model i s fundamentally erroneous in its modeling of time, and for that reason relativity and quantum mechancs continue to resist all attempts to successfully combine them, quantum field theory notwithstandin.

(20) Presently, gravitational field and electrical field are considered mutually exclusive. Actualy this is also untrue. In 1974, for example, Santilli proved that electrical field and gravitationalfiend indeed are not mutually exclusive. In that case one is left with two possibilities: (a) they are totally the same thing, or (b) they are partially he same thing. For the proof, see R. M. Santilli, "Partons and Gravitation: Some Puzzling Questions, Annals of Physics, Vol. 83, No. 1, March 1974. With the new Tesla electromagnetics, pure scalar waves in time itself can be produced electrically , and lectrostatics (when the charge has been seperated from the mass) becomes a "magic" tool capable of drectly affecting anything that exists in time -- incl uding the gravitational field. Antigravity and the intertial drive are immediate and direct consequnces of the new electromagnetics.

(21) Presently, mind is considered metaphysical, not a part of physics, and not affected by physicl means. Literally, the prevailing belief of Western scientists is that man is a mechanical robot --even though relativity depends entirely upon the idea of the idea of the "observer." Western science today thus has essentially become dogmatic, and in tis respect borders on a religion. Since this "religion," so to speak, is now fairly well entrenched n its power in the state, Western science is turning itself into an oligarchy. But mind occupies time, and when we measure and affect time, we can directy measure and affect mind itself. In the new electromagnetics, then, Man regains his dignity and hishumanity by restoring the reality of mind and thought to science. In my book, The Excalibur Briefing, I have already pointed out the reality of mind and simplified way in which it can be modeled to the first order. With scalar wave instruments, the reaity of mind and thought can be measured in the laboratory, and parapsychology becomes a working, engineering, scientific discipline.

(22) Multiple valued basic dimensional functions are either not permitted or severely discouraged n the present theory. For one thing, integrals of multiple valued derivative functions have the annoing habit of "blowing up" and yielding erroneous answers, or none at all. And we certainly do not allow multiple types of time! This leads to the absurdiy of the present interpretation of relativity, which permits only a single observer (and a single obervation) at a time. So if one believes as "absurd" a thing as the fact that more than one person can observe an apple at the same time, the present physcs fails. However, the acceptance of such a simple proposition as multiple simultaneous observationleads to a physics so bizarre and incredible that mos t Western physicists have been unable to tolerate it, much less examine its consequences. In the phyics that emerges from multiple simultaneous observation, all possibilities are real and physical. There are an infiite number of worlds, orthogonal to one another, and each world is continually splitting into additional such "worlds" at a stupendous rat. Nonetheless, this physics was worked out by Everett for his doctoral thesis in 1956, and the thess was published in 1957. (See Hugh Everett, III, The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: A Fundamental Exposition, with papers by J. A. Wheeer, B. S. DeWitt, L. N. Cooper and D. Van Vechten, and N. Graham; eds. Bryce S. Dewitt and Neill Graam, Princeton Series in Physics, Princeton University Press, 1973.) Even though it is bizarre, Everett's physics is entirely consistent with the present xperimental basis of physics. The present electromagnetic theory is constructed for only a single "rdl" or universe -- or "level." The expanded theory, on the other hand, contains multiply nested levels of virtual state charge -- and these levels are idntically the same as orthogonal universes, or "hyperframes." Multiple kinds -- and values -- of timealso exist. The new concept differs from Everett's, h owever, in that the orthogonal universes intercommunicate in the virtual state. That is, an observabe in one universe is always a virtual quantity in each of the other universes. Thus one can have muli-level "continuities" and "discontinuities" simultan eously, without logical conflict. It is precisely these levels of charge -- these levels of scalar vcuum -- that lace together the discontinuous quanta generated by the interaction of vector light wit mass.

However, to understand the new electromagnetic reality, one requires a new, expanded logic which cntains the old Aristotlean logic as a subset. I have already pointed out the new logic in my paper, A Conditional Criterion for Identity, Leading to a Fo urth Law of Logic," 1979, available from the National Technical Information Center, AD-A071032.

Even as logic is extended, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, and relativity are drasticaly changed by the Tesla electromagnetics, as I point- ed out in my paper, "Solutions to Tesla's Secrts and the Soviet Tesla Weapons," Tesla Book Company, 1580 Magnolia, Millbrae, CA, 94030, 1980.

The present electromagnetics is just a special case of a much more fundamental electromgnetics discovered by Nikola Tesla, just as Newtonian physics is a special case of the relativistic hysics. But in the new electromagnetics case, the differences between the old and the new are far more drastic and profound.

Additional References

1. Boren, Dr. Lawence Milton, "Discovery of the Fundamental Magnetic Charge (Arising from the new Coservation of Magnetic Energy)," 1981/1982 (private communication). Dr. Boren has a cogent argument tat the positron is the fundamental unit of magnetic charge. His theory thus assigns fundamentally different natures to positive charge and negative charg. In support of Dr. Boren, one should point out that the "positive" end of circuits can simply be "lss negative" than the "negative" end. In other words, the circuit works simply from higher accumulation of negative charges (the "negative" end) to a leser accumulation of negative charges (the "positive" end). Nowhere needthere be positive charges (proons, positrons, etc.) to make the circuit work. Dr. B orens theory, though dramatic at first encounter, nonetheless bears close and meticulous examination-- particularly since he has been able to gather experimental data which support his theory and disgree with present theory.

2. Eagle, Albert, "An Alternative Explanation of Relativity Phenomena," philosophical Magazine and Jurnal of Science, No. 191, December 1939, pp. 694 -701.

3. Ehrenaft, Felix and Wasser, Emanuel, "Determination of the Size and Weight of Single Submicroscopc Spheres of the Order of Magnitude r = 4 x 10(-5) cm. to 5 x 10(-6) cm., as well as the Production f Real Images of Submicroscopic Particles by means of Ultraviolet Light," Phil. Mag. and Jour. of Sci., Vol. II (Seventh Series), No. 7, July 1926, pp. 3-51.

4. Ehrenhaft, Felix and Wasser, Emanuel, "New Evidence of the Existance of Charges smaller than the lectron - (a) The Micromagnet; (b) The Law of Resistance; © The computation of errors of the Metho," Phil. Mag. and Jour. of Sci., Vol. V (Seventh Series), No. 28, February 1928, pp. 225-241.

5. See also Ehrenhaft's last paper dealing with the electronic charge, in Philosophy of Science, Vo. 8, 1941, p. 403.

6. McGregor, Donald Rait, The Inertia of the Vacuum: A New Foundation for Theoretical Physics, Expostion Press, Smithtown, NY, First Edition, 1981, pp. 15-20.

7. Ignat'ev, Yu. G. and Balakin, A. B., "Nonliner Gravitational Waves in Plasma," Soviet Physics Jounal, Vol. 24, No. 7, July 1981, (U.S. Translation, Consultants Bureau, NY, JAnurary 1982), pp. 593-57.

8. Yater, Joseph C., "Relation of the second law of thermodynamics to the power conversion of energyfluctuations," Phys. Review A, Vol. 20, no. 4, October 1979, pp. 1614-1618.

9. DeSantis, Romano M. et al, "On the Analysis of Feedback Systems With a Multipower Open Loop Chain" October 1973, available through the Defense Technical Information Center (AD 773188).

10. Graneau, Peter, "Electromagnetic Jet-Propulsion in the Direction of current flow," Nature, Vol. 95, 28 Janurary 1982, pp. 311-312

11. "Gravity and acceleration aren't always equivalent," New Scientist, 17 September 1981, p. 723.

12. Gonyaev, V. V., "Experimental Determination of the Free-Fall Acceleration of a Relativistic Chared Particle. II. A Cylindrical Solenoid in a Time- Independent Field of Inertial Forces," Izvestiya UZ, Fizika, No. 7, 1979, pp. 28-32. English Translati on: Soviet Physics Journal, No. 7, 1979, pp. 829-833. If one understands the new, expanded electromanetics, this Soviet paper indicates a means of generating antigravity and pure inertial fields.

13. R. Schaffranke, "The Development of Post-Relativistic Concepts in Physics and Advanced Technolog Abroad," Energy Unlimited, No. 12, Winter 1981, pp. 15-20.

14. F. K. Preikschat, A Critical look at the theory of Relativity, Library of Congress Catalogue No.77-670044. Extensive compilation of measurements of the speed of light. Clearly shows the speed of lght is not constant but changes, sometimes even daily.

B: The Secret of Electrical Free Energy

Present electromagnetic theory is only a special case of the much more funda- mental electromagnetictheory discovered by Nikola Tesla at the turn of the century.

Pure vacuum is pure charge flux, without mass. The vacuum has a very high electrical potential -- soething on the order of 200 million volts, with respect to a hypothetical zero charge.

Thus in an ordinary electrical circuit, each point of the "ground" -- which has the same potential a the vacuum -- actually has a non-zero absolute potential. This circuit ground has a value of zero oly with respect to something else which has the same absolute electrical potential.

Voltage, which is always associated with a flow of electrical "mass" current (even if only a miniscue flow), is, by definition, a difference dropped in potential when a charge mass moves between two satially seperated points. What we have termed "electrical current" only flows where there is a suitable conducting medium between things which have a diference in absolute potential. Furthermore, between any two points in any material, there is considerd to be a finite resistance -- if we apply a voltage ahd have a mass current flowing between the two points! Rigorously, to have one of the three is to hve them all. To lose one is to lose all three. Immediately we see a major error in present theory: Oe can have a "difference in scalar potential" between two points without having a "voltage drop" between them. Specifically, if no mass current flows beteen them, no resistance exists between them, and no voltage drop exists between them.

In the same fashion, one can have a "scalar wave" through the vacuum without a voltage wave. In thatcase, the wave has no E-field and no H-field. The only reason one has an E field around a staticallycharged object is because the charged electrons accum ulated on the object are actually in violent motion. It is this motion of the charged masses that prduces E-field -- as well as H-field whenever that entire E-field ensemble moves through laborotory sace.

Now let us reason together the "approximate" manner utilized in present electromagnetic theory. For xample, let us examine a bird sitting on a high tension line.

The bird sits on the high tension line without a flow of mass electricity, because there is no signiicant difference in potential drop between the bird and the line. Specifically, between the birds tw feet -- each in contact with a different portion of the line -- there exists no potential difference. This is true even though, with respect to the vacum, each foot is at a potential that would be "100,000 volts higher," were a mass current flowing. An it is true even though the absolute potential of each foot may be some 200.1 million "volts," were a mass current flowing.

Now an interesting thing happens to the bird when he flies through the air to light upon the high tesion wire. As he flies towards the wire, he is flying through the massless electrostatic potential feld of the wire, for that field extends an infinite d istance away from the wire. The electrostatic potential field -- pure 0-field -- is actually the spaiotemporal intensity of the massless charge at a point. In other words, as the bird flies to the wir, he flies into an increasing "massless charge" poten tial, building up to 100,000 "volts" higher than the earth. However, very little (if any) "mass flow potential difference is experienced upon his body in approaching the wire, and so essientially no "harged mass currents" are induced in his body. Thus the little flier safely navigates into the teeth of a very high electrostatic potential, lights upon he wire, and is not "fried" in the process. When he lights on the wire, his body has reached the eletrostatic potential that each foot's contact point ha s. Again, there is no mass current flow. But his body is immersed in an increased flux of massless carge -- which is what the electrostatic potential represents. And each "virtual particle" flow in tht charge represents a "massless (scalar)" electrical current.

The point is, one can have any amount of massless charge flow -- "scalar" current -- without any mecanical work being done in the system. All electrical work in a circuit is done against the physical ass of the charged masses that flow. Rigorously, forc e is defined as the time rate of charge of momentum. Even in the relativistic case where F = ma + v(m/dt), change of momentum requires mass movement. No mechanical work, and hence no energy, is expendd by massless charge flow.

That is why the vacuum massless charge -- which is composed of a very high flux of massless "particls" -- normally does no work on our systems, and expends none of its very high "potential energy." Itis exactly the same as the bird which flew into an in creasing scalar field as it approached the high tension wire -- no work was done upon the bird by th increasing scalar flux currents encountered by its body.

By existing "in the vacuum," so to speak, we (the whole earth) are as birds sitting on a high tensio line! Until we create a significant differece in potential, via our present electromagnetic circuit, no current can flow -- anywhere. Even if we produce potential differences, we must have a conductor and charged masses to flow, if we with to produce echanical work. Presently our electromagnetic theory allows us to create a difference in potential wthin different parts of a circuit, but only by moving and shifting charged mass. We therefore have to do work on this electrical mass in moving it around and we only get back the work we have put into the circuit. In other words, presently all wee do is"pump" electrical mass.

Now notice what would happen to the bird on the line if we substantially "pulsed" the potential on te line. Suppose we "pulsed" it such that the bird's physical system -- considered as a circuit contining a capicitance, a resistance, an inductance, and many free electrons -- became resonant to the pulsing frequency. In that case the "bird system" woud resonate, and a great deal of electrical mass would surge back and forth in the body of the bird. n the birds body, voltage would exist, charged mass c urrent would flow, work would be done, and the bird would be electrocuted.

Also, note that, without mass movement, electromagnetic vector fields are not produced (and a portio of the difficulty lies with the actual vector mechanics itself). Scalar (nonvector) waves continualy penetrate the "space" where there is no mass moveme nt. This means there can exist a "delta-0" without a voltage or an E-field. The present theory does ot allow this, because it always uses "q" (charge) to be charged mass. Briefly, without belaboring te point, let us just say that is the mechanical spin of the individual charged particle -- such as the electron -- which "entangles" or "knits together" r "couples" independent scalar waves into vector waves. A vector wave is simply two coupled scalar wves. The entire force field concept -- such as the E-field and the B-field -- is operationally Defined in terms of the force exhibited on a test particle or test mass. Rigorusly, an E-field does not exist as a force field in a vacuum, but as two coupledscalar 0-fields "tumbling about each other." When the se two coupled, tumbling fields meet a spinning electron, e.g., the force emerges on the electron mas. In short, movement of a rotating mass changes delta-0 to "voltage", creating the V/I/R triad.

By "accululating charged mass particles" -- such as electrons -- one certainly can increase the valu of 0, which represents the charge intensity or "scalar electrostatic potential." However, that is nt the only way to increase it. Resonance and rotatio n of charged mass can also be appropriately employed to vary the vacuum charge potential 0, under prper circumstances.

By the correct application of rotary principles and Tesla electromagnetic theory, it is possible to scillate -- and change the vacuum potential itself, in one part of an electrical system.

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